Main ingredients of CINCINION and Cantareus products
CAVIAR (lyophilized snail eggs)
The product is a weakly colored powder obtained from homogenised snail eggs, with a relatively low content of protein (25%) and carbohydrates (6.9%), accompanied by an extremely low level of free fatty acids (less than 1%). Also, the product contains various lipoproteins and glycoproteins that act as fast or long-acting energy sources. Among the enzymatic activities, special attention must be paid to the activity similar to metalloproteinase and dipeptidyl peptidase observed during reconstruction in an aqueous product. The amount of free amino acids and polyamines is also relatively low compared to other snail products. The most common amino acids are glycine, lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, threonine and glutamic acid. The product also contains a significant amount of protein-related trace elements - calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium.
Mucus (lyophilized snail mucus)
The product is a light brown powder. In general, mucus is a complex mixture of proteins, glycoproteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, flavonoids, inorganic substances and low molecular weight compounds. The main component of mucus is the protein fraction (about 45%), which consists of various substances and structures - glycoproteins, proteolytic enzymes, lipoproteins and low molecular weight peptides. The snail secretes mucus to protect itself from environmental hazards and to restore the body and shell from injury. Mucus can be expected to contain substances that favor these functions. Collagen and the elastin compound have been identified as the major protein fraction in mucus. These compounds are the main components of the so-called extracellular matrix. This matrix is a type of skeletal network for connecting different cells and building individual tissues. The cells of the extracellular matrix have been found to be the cause of new growth and healing of damaged tissue. The extracellular matrix has been shown to affect the immune response by stimulating regenerative processes in cells.
Other important components of the protein fraction are proteolytic and oxidative enzymes. The presence of superoxide and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mucosa is known to date. These two enzymes have strong antioxidant effects and are naturally oxygen cellular quenchers containing reactive particles, also known as free radicals.
Our research shows that mucus also has caspase-like activity. Caspases are a specific class of enzymes that play a major role in the processes of apoptosis and inflammation in mammals, including humans. They are regulators of programmed cell death (apoptosis). The presence of such activity in snail mucus may be the reason for its effectiveness in removing defective cells and effective wound healing.
The cellular fraction of mucus also contains various copper and zinc-containing low molecular weight peptides that perform the function of an antimicrobial agent.
PROTEIN (lyophilized snail meat)
The light brown powder is prepared from homogenized fresh snail meat. The product is high in protein (69.3%) and carbohydrates (13.6%) and relatively low in fatty acids (3.3%). It has been found that almost 70% of the protein is water soluble.
The product is rich in free amino acids (2.56 g / 100g) and polyamines (0.26 g / 100g). Polyamines are considered essential for life. Polyamines have specific roles in the cell cycle, embryonic development, cancer, neurochemistry, lung and immune systems. Among the essential amino acids, lysine dominates with a value of about 45% of all essential amino acids. It also contains a large amount of threonine, histamine and valine. The product is rich in cationic and anionic amino acids, such as aspartic acid, ornithine, glutamine, lysine and especially glutamic acid. The material was found to contain a relatively large amount of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine, homocysteine and cysteine) and glutathione. Glutathione is a natural antioxidant that protects cells from oxidative stress. The carbohydrate fraction of the product contains mainly branched polysaccharides of hexoses (galactose, mannose, glucose). Small amounts of sulfonated and sialic acid-containing polysaccharides have been found.
AMINO ACIDS (lyophilized enzyme hydrolyzate from snail meat)
The light brown powder, prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of fresh snail meat, consists of 9.3% protein (Bradford method), 3.3% fatty acids and 13.6% carbohydrates. The level of the water-soluble part of the product was determined to be approximately 90%, as a percentage of the total dry sample. Analysis of the free amino acid composition showed a large amount of essential amino acids (12.0 mg out of a total of 26.4 g per 100 g of sample or ~ 45%). The branched-chain amino acids - leucine, isoleucine and valine are the main ingredients with application. 80% of the total essential amino acids. The product also contains a relatively large amount of glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and hydroxyproline. (see additional table below for details). The product is also available from polyamines (0.45 g / 100g). The product is also available from low molecular weight peptides. Ultrafiltration separation of the product shows this application. 75% of the total product is below 5 kDa. To date, 17 separate di-, tert- and tetrapeptides containing proline and 4-hydroxyproline have been identified.
The fatty acid part of the product contains an application. 60% of PUFAs (C18 (n-3, n-9) and C24 (n-3, n-6 and n-12)) and abnormal branched (methylated) fatty acids. Lipid analysis determined that the hydrolyzate contained male mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerols, phosphocholine-, phosphoinositol- and myelin as lydides. Levels of biogenic amines (potential allergens) have been found to be relatively low (> 40 μg / 100 g). Biogenic amines are usually associated with the freshness of products.